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Nigeria
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Nigeria officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a sovereign country located in West Africa bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. A federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. A multinational state, Nigeria is inhabited by more than 250 ethnic groups with over 500 distinct languages all identifying with a wide variety of cultures.The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa–Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east; comprising over 60% of the total population. The official language of Nigeria is English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level. Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslims, who live mostly in the north. Nigeria has respectively, the fifth-largest Muslim population in the world and the sixth-largest Christian population in the world,with the constitution ensuring freedom of religion. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities. Nigeria has been home to several ancient and indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms over the millennia. The modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century and took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914 by Lord Frederick Lugard. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practicing indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms, Nigeria became a formally independent federation on October 1, 1960. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2015 presidential election marking the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world, with an estimated 206 million inhabitants as of late 2019. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under the age of eighteen. Nigeria has the largest economy in Africa and is the world's 24th largest economy according to the list by the IMF (2020 estimates), worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity, respectively.[ The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent as of 2019 it has risen to an approximated figure of thirty percent. Nigeria is a lower middle-income economy with a gross national income per capita between $1,026 and $3,995 Nigeria is often referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy, it is also considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank; it has been identified as a regional power on the African continent, a middle power in international affairs,and has also been identified as an emerging global power. However, its Human Development Index ranks 158th in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are widely seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies. It is also listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ECOWAS, and OPEC.  
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Abiodun Okeowo Adeleke
Alsia Kabari
+7
The Gambia
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The Gambia, country in western Africa situated on the Atlantic coast and surrounded by the neighbouring country of Senegal. It occupies a long narrow strip of land that surrounds the Gambia River. The land is flat and is dominated by the river, which is navigable throughout the length of the country. BRITANNICA QUIZ A Study of History: Fact or Fiction? The first transcontinental auto crossing took place in 1903. The peculiar shape and size of the country are the result of territorial compromises made during the 19th century by Great Britain, which controlled the lower Gambia River, and France, which ruled the neighbouring colony of Senegal. Periodic talks in the 20th century to unite The Gambia and Senegal led to the short-lived Senegambia confederation (1982–89). The GambiaEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The Gambia is Africa’s smallest nonisland country. It is also one of Africa’s most densely populated countries. A few towns are located upriver, but most Gambians live in rural villages. The major ethnic groups are similar to those in Senegal and consist of the majority Malinke and also include Wolof, Fulani (Fulbe), Diola (Jola), and Soninke peoples. The Gambian economy is heavily dependent on peanut (groundnut) production and export. The country is known for the beaches along its small Atlantic coastline and for being home to Jufureh (Juffure), the reputed ancestral village of Kunta Kinte, the main character in Alex Haley’s well-known novel Roots. The capital, Banjul (called Bathurst until 1973), is situated where the Gambia River flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.Subscribe today Land The Gambia is a strip of land 15 to 30 miles (25 to 50 km) wide on either side of the Gambia River and extends almost 300 miles (480 km) into the interior; except for a short coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, it is entirely surrounded by Senegal. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The GambiaBeach on the Atlantic coast of The Gambia.© Alan Kraft/Shutterstock.com Relief and drainage The Gambia River is the country’s dominant feature. It flows across a plateau of Miocene-Pliocene sandstone consisting of compacted sediment composed predominantly of quartz grains formed from about 23.7 to 1.6 million years ago. In the east, narrow valleys are separated by broad interfluves or flattish hills. In the west, lower and smaller sand hills alternate with depressions filled in with sand to form a flat plain. Gambia RiverFishermen on the Gambia River near Banjul, Gambia.© Anton_Ivanov/Shutterstock.com Soils and climate The Gambia has a wet-and-dry tropical climate characterized by an intense rainy season occurring generally between June and October and by a longer dry season. Near the coast the rainy season lasts longer, and the rainfall is heavier, diminishing eastward. At Yundum the average annual rainfall is about 50 inches (1,300 mm), and the mean monthly temperature tends to be in the upper 70s F (mid-20s C), while at Basse Santa Su, about 270 miles (435 km) inland, the comparable figures are about 40 inches (1,000 mm) and the low 80s F (upper 20s C). The relative humidity is high but drops from December to April, when the dry northeastern wind known as the harmattan is dominant. Plant and animal life The vegetation cover of The Gambia is savanna on the uplands, various kinds of inland swamp in the low-lying areas, and mangrove swamp along the brackish lower Gambia River. Few wild animals are native to the region, and those that survive are under pressure from the human and domestic animal populations. In the middle and upper river areas there are warthogs, monkeys, baboons, antelope, pygmy hippopotamuses, and crocodiles. In addition, more than 500 species of birds live throughout the country. Birds and wildlife can be found in Bijilo Forest Park, along the Atlantic coast, the Abuko Nature Reserve, just upriver from Banjul, Kiang West National Park, farther inland, and River Gambia National Park (also known as Baboon Island National Park), near Kuntaur. People Ethnic groups The river basin was a focal point for migrating groups of people escaping the turmoil of western Sudanic wars dating from the 12th century. The Diola (Jola) are the people longest resident in the country; they are now located mostly in western Gambia. The largest group is the Malinke, comprising about one-third of the population. The Wolof, who are the dominant group in Senegal, also predominate in Banjul. The Fulani settled the extreme upriver areas, and their kingdom, Fuladu, became a major power in the late 19th century. The Soninke, an admixture of Malinke and Fulani, are also concentrated in the upriver areas. The Gambia: Ethnic compositionEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The GambiaA woman and child in The Gambia.© Andrej Grzegorczyk/Shutterstock.com Languages English is the official language, but the most frequently spoken languages are generally of the Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo family. Mandinka and Wolof constitute the lingua francas of the country, and other languages spoken include Pulaar (Fulbe), Serer, Diola, and Soninke. Some Muslim clerics are literate in Arabic. Religion The population is overwhelmingly Muslim. There are a small number of Christians—predominantly Roman Catholic—and some adherents of traditional beliefs. The Gambia: Religious affiliationEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Settlement patterns Human settlement in The Gambia extends across both banks of the river and is found in three regions: the swamps adjacent to the river, the riverine flats, known as banto faros (from a Mande word meaning “beyond the swamp”), and the sandstone uplands. Most rural settlement is concentrated on the uplands, which have the best-drained soils. A number of settlements are located in the banto faros on the middle course of the river, where there is less danger of flooding than in the swamps. Many villages are built on the boundary between the uplands and the riverine flats. The Gambia: Urban-ruralEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc. About three-fifths of the population lives in urban areas. The major urban concentration is around Banjul, the capital, and several large urban centres have developed in the vicinity. Urban dwellers retain close ties to their rural relatives, and there is considerable interaction between rural and urban populations. Migration to urban areas has remained steady since the 1970s. The GambiaMerchants selling produce at a traditional market in Farafenni, Gambia.© Vladimir Zhoga/Shutterstock.com The Gambia flag of the GambiaNational anthem of The Gambia   OFFICIAL NAME Republic of The Gambia FORM OF GOVERNMENT multiparty republic with one legislative house (National Assembly [531]) HEAD OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT President: Adama Barrow CAPITAL Banjul OFFICIAL LANGUAGE English OFFICIAL RELIGION none MONETARY UNIT dalasi (D) POPULATION (2019 est.) 2,253,000 POPULATION RANK (2018) 145 POPULATION PROJECTION 2030 3,029,000 TOTAL AREA (SQ MI) 4,491 TOTAL AREA (SQ KM) 11,632 DENSITY: PERSONS PER SQ MI (2018) 523.7 DENSITY: PERSONS PER SQ KM (2018) 204.5 URBAN-RURAL POPULATION Urban: (2018) 61.3% Rural: (2018) 38.7% LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH Male: (2017) 62.8 years Female: (2017) 67.5 years LITERACY: PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION AGE 15 AND OVER LITERATE Male: (2015) 64.1% Female: (2015) 47.8% GNI (U.S.$ ’000,000) (2017) 947 GNI PER CAPITA (U.S.$) (2016) 450 1Includes 5 appointed seats. Demographic trends The population growth rate and infant mortality rate in The Gambia are among the highest in western Africa. The population is young, with about two-thirds under age 30. Life expectancy is comparable to the regional average but lower than that of the world. Over the years, conflict in other western African countries led to an influx of refugees into The Gambia, most notably those fleeing from fighting in Senegal’s Casamance region as well as those who fled from civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Momodou Njie
Amanda Bojang
Enow Songeh
+3
Ghana
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Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east, and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language. The first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Dagbon and the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, what are now Ghana's borders follow the lines of what were four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. Those were unified as an independent dominion within the British Commonwealth on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of approximately 30 million spans a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, and 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.
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Attigah christian
Joanna Amakoh
+2
Cameroon
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Cameroon officially the Republic of Cameroon (French: République du Cameroun), is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Biafra, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and historically in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Nord-Ouest and Sud-Ouest Regions having a strong West African history. However, since 2017, elements within the Sud-Ouest and Nord-Ouest regions have since declared an independent (yet internationally unrecognized) state called Ambazonia.The country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. Cameroon is home to over 250 native languages spoken by nearly 20 million people.[8][9][10] Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões (Shrimp River), which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates. The Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Paul Biya, the incumbent president, has led the country since 1982; he had previously held office as prime minister, from 1975 until his elevation to the presidency. The country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and even complete separation or independence (as in the Southern Cameroons National Council) from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions regarding the creation of an Ambazonian state in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare. The official languages of Cameroon are French and English, the official languages of former colonial French Cameroons and British Cameroons respectively. Its religious population consists of 70% Christians and 20% Muslims. It is governed as a Unitary presidential republic and has good relations with the major powers of France, the United Kingdom and China. The country is often referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. The highest point at almost 4,100 metres (13,500 ft) is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, and the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri River, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, and Garoua. The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly Makossa and Bikutsi, and for its successful national football team. Cameroon is a member state of the African Union, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Mokingo
Ann Vi Bat
Sara
Ethiopia
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Ethiopia (/ˌiːθiˈoʊpiə/; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, , Afar: Itiyoophiyaa, Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ. Oromo: Itoophiyaa, Somali: Itoobiya, Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. With over 109 million inhabitants as of 2019, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent. The country has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi). Its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa, which lies a few miles west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the Nubian and Somali tectonic plates. Ethiopian national identity is grounded in the historic and contemporary roles of Christianity and Islam, and the independence of Ethiopia from foreign rule, stemming from the various ancient Ethiopian kingdoms of antiquity.   Some of the oldest skeletal evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from which modern humans first set out for the Middle East and places beyond.According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithicera.  Tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BCE, Ethiopia's governmental system was a monarchy for most of its history. Oral literature tells that the monarchy was founded by the Solomonic dynasty of the Queen of Sheba, under its first king, Menelik I. In the first centuries, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, followed by the Ethiopian Empire c. 1137.   During the late–19th-century Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial power, and many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours. However, the country was later occupied by Italy in 1936 and became Italian Ethiopia (part of Italian East Africa), until it was liberated during World War II. During the Italian rule, the government abolished slavery, a practice that existed in the country for centuries, and urbanization steadily increased.Ethiopia was also the first independent African member of the 20th-century League of Nations and the United Nations. In 1974, the Ethiopian monarchy under Haile Selassie was overthrown by the Derg, a communist military government backed by the Soviet Union. In 1987, the Derg established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, but it was overthrown in 1991 by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which has been the ruling political coalition since.   Ethiopia and Eritrea use the ancient Ge'ez script, which is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. They follow the Ethiopian calendar, which is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar. A majority of the population adheres to Christianity (mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and P'ent'ay), and the historical Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first states to officially adopt the religion, whereas around a third follows Islam(primarily Sunni). The country is the site of the Islamic Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa, at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, also resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s.Ethiopia is a multilingual nation, with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities. Oromo is the most populous language by native speakers, while Amharic is the most populous by number of total speakers and serves as the working language in the federal government. Ge'ez remains important as a liturgical language for both the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Churchand the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and for the Beta Israel.   The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests and its numerous rivers, and the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent. Ethiopia also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Additionally, the sovereign state is a founding member of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, the G77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Its capital city, Addis Ababa, serves as the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia experienced civil conflicts and communist purges, which hindered its economy. The country has since recovered and as of 2010 has the largest economy (by GDP) in East Africa, as well as having the largest population in the region.   Capital: Addis Ababa Dialing code: +251 Population: 109.2 million (2018) World Bank Currency: Ethiopian birr Official language: Amharic
Sara
Enow Songeh
Jordan Kensington
Gambia
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The Gambia officially the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa. The Gambia is often referred to as 'The Smiling Coast'. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa, and is surrounded by Senegal, except for its western coast on the Atlantic Ocean. The Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 10,689 square kilometres (4,127 sq mi) with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census. Banjul is the Gambian capital and the country's largest metropolitan area. The largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama.   In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup. Adama Barrow became The Gambia's third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in the December 2016 elections. Jammeh initially accepted the results, then refused to accept them, which triggered a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States, resulting in his exile.   The Gambia's economy is dominated by farming, fishing and, especially, tourism.   Capital: Banjul Population: 2.28 million (2018) World Bank Currency: Gambian dalasi President: Adama Barrow Official language: English
Sara
Amanda Bojang
Natalie Williams
Sierra Leone
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Sierra Leone officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It is bordered by Liberia to the southeast and Guinea to the northeast. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests, a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and a population of 7,092,113 as of the 2015 census. The capital and largest city is Freetown. The country is divided into five administrative regions which are subdivided into sixteen districts.   Sixteen ethnic groups inhabit Sierra Leone, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Temne and Mende people. The Temne are predominantly found in the northwest and the Mende in the southeast. About two percent of the country's population are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African American and West Indian slaves. English is the official language used in schools and government administration, however, the Krio is the most widely spoken language across Sierra Leone, and is spoken by 98% of the country's population. The Krio language unites all the ethnic groups in the country, especially in their trade and social interaction.   Sierra Leone is 77 percent Muslim, with an influential Christian minority of 22 percent. The country is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant countries in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other very peacefully, and religious violence is very rare. The major Christian and Muslim holidays are official public holidays, including Christmas, Easter, Eid al-Fitr, and Eid al-Adha.   Sierra Leone has relied on mining for its economic base, especially of diamonds. It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite and a major producer of gold, and it has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. The nation is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world.   Capital: Freetown Currency: Sierra Leonean leone President: Julius Maada Bio Population: 7.65 million (2018) World Bank Official language: English
Sara
DanaWO
Shevonne Gayle
South Africa
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 58 million people, it is the world's 24th-most populous nation and covers an area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 sq mi). South Africa has three designated capital cities: executive Pretoria, judicial Bloemfontein and legislative Cape Town. The largest city is Johannesburg. About 80% of South Africans are of Black African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian, Indian, and multiracial ancestry.   It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (former Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere, and the most populous country located entirely south of the equator.   South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth-highest number in the world.     President: Cyril Ramaphosa Trending Capitals: Cape Town, Pretoria, Bloemfontein Dialing code: +27 Population: 57.78 million (2018) World Bank Points of interest: Kruger National Park, Maclear's Beacon
Sara
Shevonne Gayle
Vedna
South Sudan
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South Sudan officially known as the Republic of South Sudan,[19] is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Ethiopia, to the north by Sudan, to the west by the Central African Republic, to the south-west by Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south by Uganda and to the south east by Kenya. It gained independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the most recent sovereign state or country with widespread recognition. Its capital and largest city is Juba. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal (Arabic: بحر الجبل‎), meaning "Mountain Sea". South Sudan has a population of 12 million, mostly of the Nilotic peoples, and it is demographically among the youngest nations in the world, with roughly half under 18 years old. The majority of inhabitants adhere to Christianity or various traditional faiths.   Capital: Juba Population: 10.98 million (2018) World Bank Currency: South Sudanese pound Recognised national languages: Dinka; Shilluk; Jur (Luo); Murle; Nuer; Zande; and around 60 other languages President: Salva Kiir Mayardit
Sara
Shevonne Gayle
Vedna
Guyana
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Guyana is located at the northern tip of South America and is a little-known eco-tourism destination, now growing in popularity and welcoming tourism. Guyana recently featured in Conde Nast Traveller’s “20 Best Places to Go in 2020” and National Geographic Traveller’s “Cool List 2019” for the spectacular Kaiteur Falls, the largest single-drop waterfall in the world. Guyana was also named the “Best in Sustainable Tourism” by the LATA Foundation in the United Kingdom at the 9th annual LATA Achievement Awards. Guyana being the only English-speaking country on the continent, is associated culturally with the Caribbean and much like the Caribbean, retains much of its colonial architecture and influence. The real beauty of this land, however, is it’s home to the most diverse landscapes in the world, including hundreds of waterfalls, lakes, sprawling savannah lands, mountains and the world’s last untouched rainforest! This is also one of the top birding and wildlife destinations in South America, and boasts many giant species of wildlife including giant river otters, giant anteaters and many more exciting species to be encountered!
Karen Alexander
Jordan Kensington
Mokingo